Build a low cost PC with Raspberry pi !


Introduction

Raspberry Pi is a series of small single-board computers developed in the United Kingdom by the Raspberry Pi Foundation to promote the teaching of basic computer science in schools and in developing countries.
Several generations of Raspberry Pis have been released. The first generation (Raspberry Pi 1 Model B) was released in February 2012. It was followed by the simpler and cheaper Model A. In 2014, the Foundation released a board with an improved design in Raspberry Pi 1 Model B+. These boards are approximately credit-card sized and represent the standard mainline form-factor.
Raspberry Pi 2 which added more RAM was released in February 2015. A Raspberry Pi Zero with smaller size and reduced input/output (I/O) and general- purpose input/output (GPIO) capabilities. Raspberry Pi 3 Model B released in February 2016 and is bundled with on-board WiFi, Bluetooth and USB boot capabilities.
As of January 2017, Raspberry Pi 3 Model B+  is the newest mainline Raspberry Pi. It promotes Python and Scratch as the main programming language, with support for many other languages.The default firmware is closed source, while an unofficial open source is available.


Technical Specification


Processor

•Broadcom BCM2387 chipset.
•1.25GHz  QUAD Core Broadcom BCM2837 64bit ARMv7 processor


802.11 b/g/n Wireless LAN and Bluetooth 4.1 (Bluetooth Classic and LE)

•IEEE 802.11 b / g / n Wi-Fi. Protocol: WEP, WPA WPA2, algorithms AES-CCMP (maximum keylength of 256 bits), the maximum range of 100 meters.
•IEEE 802.15 Bluetooth, symmetric encryption algorithm Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)with 128-bit key, the maximum range of 50 meters.


GPU

•Dual Core Video Core IV® Multimedia Co-Processor. Provides Open GL ES 2.0, hardware-acceleratedOpen VG, and 1080p30 H.264 high-profile decode.
•Capable of 1Gpixel/s, 1.5Gtexel/s or 24GFLOPs with texture filtering and DMA infrastructure


Memory

•1GB LPDDR2


Operating System

•Boots from Micro SD card, running a version of the Linux operating system or Windows 10 IoT


Dimensions

•85 x 56 x 17mm


Power

•Micro USB socket 5V1, 2.5A


Connectors:

Ethernet
•10/100 BaseT Ethernet socket


Video Output
•HDMI (rev 1.3 & 1.4)     •Composite RCA (PAL and NTSC)


Audio Output
•Audio Output 3.5mm jack    •HDMI
•USB 4 x USB 2.0 Connector


GPIO Connector
•40-pin 2.54 mm (100 mil) expansion header: 2x20 strip
•Providing 27 GPIO pins as well as +3.3 V, +5 V and GND supply lines


Camera Connector
•15-pin MIPI Camera Serial Interface (CSI-2)


Display Connector
•Display Serial Interface (DSI) 15 way flat flex cable connector with two data lanes and a clock lane


Memory Card Slot
•Push/pull Micro SDIO


SoC
Built specifically for the new Pi 3, the Broadcom BCM2837 system-on-chip (SoC) includes four high-performance ARM Cortex-A53 processing cores running at 1.2GHz with 32kB Level 1 and 512kB Level 2 cache memory, a VideoCore IV graphics processor, and is linked to a 1GB LPDDR2 memory module on the rear of the board.
GPIO
The Raspberry Pi 3 features the same 40-pin general-purpose input-output (GPIO) header as all the Pis going back to the Model B+ and Model A+. Any existing GPIO hardware will work without modification; the only change is a switch to which UART is exposed on the GPIO’s pins, but that’s handled internally by the operating system.


USB chip
The Raspberry Pi 3 shares the same SMSC LAN9514 chip as its predecessor, the Raspberry Pi 2, adding 10/100 Ethernet connectivity and four USB channels to the board. As before, the SMSC chip connects to the SoC via a single USB channel,acting as a USB-to-Ethernet adaptor and USB hub.


Antenna
There’s no need to connect an external antenna to the Raspberry Pi 3.Its radios are connected to this chip antenna soldered directly to the board,in order to keep the size of the device to a minimum.Despite its diminutive stature,this antenna should be more than capable of picking up wireless LAN and Bluetooth signals-even through walls.

Software
Operating Systems


  1. Raspbian OS
The Raspbian is a lightweight OS which is based on Debian distribution. It is specically designed to work for Raspberry Pi devices It comes with pre installed software like a web browser, LibreOce, email client, etc.
  1. Windows 10 IoT Core
Windows 10 IoT Core is best for prototype development of connected devices.Projects like automated robots, home automation system, building smart gadgets, etc. can be successfully completed by the support of this Operating System.
  1. RISC OS Pi
It is based on the BBC Microcomputer Systems and is simpler than the traditional It has a super responsive USP (Universal Storage Platform) .The minimized version of RISC OS named as RISC OS Pico is suitable for the Pi hackers
  1. Retro Pi
Retro Pi is an all-in-one gaming platform which turns your Pi 3 into a high-class retro gaming machine. It is built on Raspbian, EmulationStation, etc. projects, which means you need not to be a scientist of Linux You can directly install it on your Raspbian OS.
  1. OSMC
It is based on Kodi (formerly known as XBMC) media center but has easier functionality .It has a clean interface and a completely dierent look than Kodi, which will not make you confused.
  1. New Linutop OS
It comes as ready-to-use.It has a boot time of fewer than 30 seconds .
It is an ideal Operating System for a professional use like Internet Kiosk, Embedded Systems, Digital Signage, etc.
  1. Arch Linux ARM
It is a distribution of Linux for ARM computers.You can update it daily through the small packages
  1. Pidora
It is based on the latest Fedora build for the ARMv6 architecture .It uses Fedora 20 package set
  1. Snappy Ubuntu
It is one of the most recommended Raspberry Pi Operating Systems.
The transactional systems management makes it faster, reliable, and secure
  1. SARPi
The Slackware Linux Enthusiasts has made the community product named as Slackware ARM on Raspberry Pi (SARPi).


Platforms and Languages 


The Raspberry Pi was designed to encourage young people to learn to how to code — the Pi in Raspberry Pi even comes from the Python programming language, so the very idea of programming is written into the name of the computer itself.
In the short time that the Raspberry Pi has been around, a considerable number of programming languages have been adapted for the Raspberry Pi, either by the creator of the language, who wanted to support the Pi by porting their creation, or by enthusiastic users who wanted to see their language of choice available on their platform of choice.
Here’s a quick rundown of some of the languages now available for you to program on the Pi. Keep in mind that this list is not exhaustive. Remember: If a language can be compiled for the ARMv6 chip, it can run on the Raspberry Pi.
Scratch
Scratch is an entry-level programming language that comes as standard with the Raspberry Pi distribution, Raspbian. Scratch was originally created by the Lifelong Kindergarten Group at the MIT Media Lab in Boston, U.S., with an aim to help young people learn mathematical and computational concepts while having fun making things.


Python
Python is one of the primary programming languages hosted on the Raspberry Pi. Did you know that Python is named after Monty Python’s Flying Circus, the comedy team who brought us Life of Brian? (Which means Raspberry Pi is indirectly named after Monty Python, too.)
HTML5
HTML is the mark-up language that makes the World Wide Web tick. It was devised by Tim Berners-Lee while he was working at CERN in Geneva as a means to allow scientists in the organization to share their documents with each other. Before long, it went global.
JavaScript
JavaScript is a scripting language that works alongside HTML to add interactivity to websites. JavaScript was invented, and is maintained by, the World Wide Web Consortium, which also looks after HTML and CSS.
JQuery
JQuery is the most popular JavaScript library. It runs on any browser, and it makes the scripting of HTML considerably simpler. With jQuery, you can create rich web interfaces and interactive components with just a small amount of JavaScript knowledge.
Java
When Java arrived on the scene, it was greeted with open arms by developers as the first programming language with which you could write a program that would run on any operating system, Windows machines and Unix boxes alike, without having to re-write the code.
C programming language
The C Programming language was written by Dennis Ritchie, using Brian Kernighan’s B language as its model. C is one of the most widely used languages in the world, utilized in everything from complete operating systems to simple programming languages.
C++
C++ was developed by the Danish developer Bjarne Stroustrup as a way to enhance C. C++ is used in a million different circumstances, including hardware design, embedded software (in mobile phones, for example), graphical applications, and programming video games. C++ adds object-oriented features to C. Other object-oriented languages are Java, Smalltalk, Ruby, and .Net.
Perl
Perl has been called the “duct tape that holds the Internet together” and the “Swiss Army chainsaw of scripting languages.” It was given these names because of its flexibility and its adaptability. Before Perl came along, the Internet was but a collection of static pages.
Erlang
Erlang is a programming language used when there is no room for failure. You might use Erlang if you were running a nuclear power plant or if you were designing a new air traffic control system: mission-critical situations where the computer breaking down would spell disaster.


Components Used



Raspberry Pi Model B+

   


Zebronics ZEB-A15.6 LED Monitor Pure Pixel


   


iBall Style 63 Optical Mouse


   

Zebronics ZEB-K11 USB keyboard 

   


AmazonBasics DVI to HDMI Adapter Cable

   

Micro SD Card

   

Total cost of this setup = 
Rs.9441 or $134.20


Conclusion


        The raspberry pi is thus an efficient choice for a good project .Since it offers a grand choice of platforms and opensource softwares it is easier for a beginner or a developer to meet his needs.
    It is found that a general purpose PC can be set up using the raspberry pi at an affordable price of Rs.9441 or $135

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